20 September 2021, Volume 19 Issue 5 Previous Issue   
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Semantic Information Takes Precedence over Spatial Location and Glyph Feature in Contextual Cueing with Chinese Characters
ZHU Huan, XIE Xiaowei, DAI Zheru, TANG Xiaoya, ZANG Jian, WU Jiao, ZANG Xuelian
2021, 19(5):  577-584. 
Abstract ( 40 )   HTML ( 12 )   PDF (1475KB) ( 35 )   References | Related Articles | Metrics
During visual search, humans are able to improve their search performance through learning constant associations among the targets and the scenes in which the targets are typically presented in, that is, contextual cueing effect. This study used high-frequency (contains rich semantic cues) or low-frequency (contains less semantic cues) characters as the visual search item to investigate the role of Chinese characters’ features including, semantic meaning, orthography, and spatial location in contextual learning. In the initial learning session, participants viewed either repeated search displays with both the characters and their locations maintained constant or novel displays with both characters and location varied randomly. In a subsequent test session, either characters or spatial locations were randomly varied to examine whether a change on the semantics or the spatial locations would affect the transfer of the learned contextual cueing effect (if any). The results showed significant contextual learning effects in both experiments. Most importantly, the high-frequency characters that consisted of both semantic and orthographic qualities maintained contextual cueing effects that could be transferred when the spatial location of the characters changed but not when the characters semantics or orthography were changed. In contrast, low-frequency characters that mainly contain orthographic qualities (semantic being too complicated), had a contextual cueing effect that could be transferred when characters changed form (spatial location maintained) but not when spatial location changed (character maintained). The results suggest that the spatial locations are more important than the orthographic context when semantics are less important, but semantic context is the most important when semantics, orthography and spatial location are all presented at the same time. In other words, in Chinese character based contextual learning, semantics plays a dominant role, followed by spatial context and finally orthographic context.
Influence of the Position and Transparency of Semantic Radicals on Semantic Activation in Chinese Phonogram Recognition
LIU Lu, JIANG Yamei, ZHANG Qiaoming, LI Zhuyang
2021, 19(5):  585-591. 
Abstract ( 32 )   HTML ( 3 )   PDF (585KB) ( 14 )   References | Related Articles | Metrics
This study explored the effect of different semantic radical positions and transparency on the semantic activation of Chinese phonogram in semantic related judgment task by eye-tracking. The results showed that the accuracy rate, reaction time and fixation times of the phonogram with the left and upper position of semantic radicals were higher, but the average fixation time was longer. The transparent phonograms had shorter reaction time, higher accuracy, and fewer fixation times. Moreover, the position and functional attributes of semantic radicals played an important interaction in Chinese phonogram recognition. When the semantic radicals’ location was on the left and on the upper, the recognition time of transparent phonogram was faster than that of opaque phonogram. The present study confirmed that the skilled Chinese readers have orthographic awareness of “the semantic radical represent the meaning”.
The Characteristics of Word Processing When Deaf Readers Read Chinese: Evidences from Disappearing Text
LIU Zhifang, ZENG Taishen, CHAI Lin, CHEN Chaoyang, TONG Wen
2021, 19(5):  592-598. 
Abstract ( 27 )   HTML ( 3 )   PDF (693KB) ( 18 )   References | Related Articles | Metrics
Two experiments were conducted to explore whether deaf students process words differently to hearing students in Chinese reading. Experiment 1 was a 4 (disappearing manipulations: control vs. word n+1 disappearing vs. initial character of word n+1 disappearing vs. end character of word n+1 disappearing) × 3 (groups: deaf vs. reading matched hearing vs. age matched hearing) mixed design. The results showed reliable interaction effects for sentence reading time between groups and disappearing manipulations. Word n+1 disappearing impedes reading more seriously than the other disappearing manipulations for the three groups. Experiment 2 was also a 4 (disappearing manipulations: control vs. word n disappearing vs. initial character of word n disappearing vs. end character of word n disappearing) × 3 (groups: deaf vs. reading matched hearing vs. age matched hearing) mixed design. The results showed unreliable interaction effects for sentence reading time between groups and manipulations. The results suggest that deaf readers have enhanced parafoveal character processing ability, and a similarity between deaf and hearing readers in their recognition of multi-character words.
The Regulatory Role of Reading Ability in Phonological Coding of Hearing-Impaired College Students
YANG Xue, LEI Jianghua
2021, 19(5):  599-605. 
Abstract ( 30 )   HTML ( 4 )   PDF (645KB) ( 16 )   References | Related Articles | Metrics
To investigate phonological coding mechanism in reading printed Chinese characters of hearing-impaired college students with different reading levels, this study adapted a lexical judgment task using the masked onset priming paradigm, by manipulating the priming phonemes (the initials or the finals) and their relation between target Chinese character (same or different phoneme). The results revealed that the hearing-impaired college students exhibited the reading ability regulatory effect, the homo-phoneme advantage, and the finals coding advantage in Chinese characters’ phonological coding. Besides, the reading ability regulatory effect and the finals coding advantage were more obvious under the different phoneme prime conditions when compared to the same phoneme prime condition.
The Perceptual Span for Chinese Grade 1 Primary School Students
LI Sainan, YAN Guoli, WANG Yali, LIU Min, ZHAO Shuping
2021, 19(5):  606-611. 
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Using moving window paradigm, the present study mainly investigated the reading perceptual span among first graders, as well as the effect of individual differences on the perceptual span. It was found that the reading perceptual span in first graders was more symmetric, extending 1 character to the left and 1 character to the right of fixation. However, the reading perceptual span among faster and slower readers was the same, indicating that they could get useful information from the same area.
The Relationship Between Harsh Parenting and Adolescents’ Search for Meaning in Life: A Moderated Mediation Model
DENG Huiying, KONG Fanchang
2021, 19(5):  612-619. 
Abstract ( 46 )   HTML ( 8 )   PDF (796KB) ( 31 )   References | Related Articles | Metrics
To investigate the relationship between harsh parenting and adolescents’ search for meaning in life and its mechanism, we recruited 399 high school students to complete relevant questionnaires. The results showed that: 1) Perceived control had the suppressing effects on the relationship between harsh parenting and adolescents’ search for meaning in life. 2) Positive coping style weakened the positive predictive effect of harsh parenting and perceived control on search for meaning in life. Meanwhile, negative coping style reinforced the positive predictive effect of harsh parenting on search for meaning in life, but buffered the negative effect of harsh parenting on perceived control. Results highlighted the suppressing effects of perceived control and the moderating role of coping style in the relationship between harsh parenting and adolescents’ search for meaning in life.
Peer Relationship and Children’s Reactive and Proactive Aggression: A Cross-Lagged Regression Analysis
ZHOU Guangdong, ZHOU Guangmin
2021, 19(5):  620-627. 
Abstract ( 34 )   HTML ( 3 )   PDF (594KB) ( 19 )   References | Related Articles | Metrics
The present study explored the direction of the relationship between peer relationship and children’s reactive and proactive aggression. By using cluster sampling method, 1380 children from grade 1 to grade 5 of a primary school in Nankai District, Tianjin were studied. Two waves of data collection were conducted in April 2017 and January 2018 respectively, which had an eight-month interval. Peer relationship was measured by peer nomination. The head teacher reported children’s reactive and proactive aggression. The results show that: 1) social preference and children’s reactive aggression negatively predicted each other; 2) social preference negatively predicted children’s proactive aggression, but proactive aggression did not predict their social preference. The results have theoretical significance to reveal the direction of the relationship between peer relationship and aggressive behavior. The conclusions have practical value to the prevention and treatment of children’s aggressive behaviors.
The Relationship Between Fraction Magnitude Representation and Mathematics Achievement: The Mediating Role of the Conceptual Understanding of Fraction in Fourth-Grade and Seventh-Grade
QIU Chen, NIU Meixin, ZHOU Xinlin, YANG Tao
2021, 19(5):  628-635. 
Abstract ( 18 )   HTML ( 2 )   PDF (769KB) ( 12 )   References | Related Articles | Metrics
The current study aimed to explore the mediating role of conceptual understanding of fraction in the relationship between fraction magnitude representation and mathematics achievement. A total of 379 students in the fourth and seventh grades in Beijing were investigated. Results showed that fraction magnitude representation was positively related to mathematics achievement. As the grades increased, the association between fraction magnitude representation and mathematics achievement was enhanced. Conceptual understanding of fraction totally mediated the relationship between fraction magnitude representation and mathematics achievement in the fourth grade, and partially mediated the relationship between fraction magnitude representation and mathematics achievement in the seventh grade. Thus, fraction magnitude representation directly improved mathematics achievement, and enhanced mathematics achievement via conceptual understanding of fraction in the fourth and seventh grades.
Cognitive Development of Colour Mapping Morality and Power Concepts in 3- to 5-Year-Old Children
HE Xiaoling, LIU Yiqing, NA Linna
2021, 19(5):  636-641. 
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To explore the development law of colour metaphor in children aged 3 to 5 years, this study analyzed images with moral and immoral characters in white or black color and images with powerful and powerless characters in yellow or grey colour. By conducting two experiments, the current research obtained the following results: 1) 3-year-old children had yet to develop colour metaphors; 2) 4-year-old children initially formed metaphorical cognition of white and black colour mapping moral concept; 3) 5-year-old children’s cognitive ability of colour metaphor continued to improve, forming the metaphorical cognition of yellow and grey colour mapping power concept. Comprehensive analysis indicated inconsistency in the development of children’s ability to understand the colour metaphors. Moreover, the development of moral colour metaphor was better than that of power colour metaphor. The results suggest that the time of source domain acquisition affects the formation of children’s metaphorical comprehension ability.
The Influence of Internet Addiction on Reasoning Ability of College Students: The Mediating Role of Working Memory Capacity
LIU Tuanli, HAO Xingfeng, XING Min, BAI Xuejun
2021, 19(5):  642-649. 
Abstract ( 42 )   HTML ( 5 )   PDF (656KB) ( 20 )   References | Related Articles | Metrics
To investigate the mediating effect of working memory capacity on the relationship between Internet addiction and reasoning ability in college students. The Internet Addiction Questionnaire (IAQ) was used to select the high and low Internet addiction participants, who were then asked to complete the Operation Span Task (OSPAN) and Raven Reasoning Test. Results showed that: 1) Correlation analysis showed that Internet addiction negatively related to working memory capacity, Internet addiction negatively related to reasoning ability, and working memory capacity positively related to reasoning ability. 2) Mediation modeling indicated Internet addiction could not directly affect reasoning ability, but could indirectly affect reasoning ability through the mediator of working memory capacity. This study indicated that working memory capacity exerts a mediating effect on the relationship between Internet addiction and reasoning ability.
The Relationship Between University Students’ Dormitory Relationship Disturbance and Mobile Phone Addiction: A Sequential Mediation Model and Gender Differences
GUO Qingtong, XU Mingxue, XU Chunyan, LIU Xiuli
2021, 19(5):  650-656. 
Abstract ( 24 )   HTML ( 0 )   PDF (709KB) ( 63 )   References | Related Articles | Metrics
The study aimed to investigate the relationship between dormitory interpersonal disturbance and mobile phone addiction, with a particular focus on the mediation effects of social anxiety and need to belong as well as the moderation effect of gender. A total of 1189 university students completed the surveys online, including Dormitory Interpersonal Relationship Diagnostic Scale, Mobile Phone Addiction Tendency Scale, the Need to Belong Scale, and Interaction Anxiousness Scale. The results showed that: 1) university students’ dormitory interpersonal disturbance positively predicted the mobile phone addiction; 2) social anxiety and need to belong played a sequential mediating role on the association between dormitory interpersonal disturbance and mobile phone addiction; 3) a significant indirect effect of dormitory interpersonal disturbance on the mobile phone addiction was found in males, but not in females, mainly because the relationship between social anxiety and mobile phone addiction was only shown in males.
Impact of Chronotype on Symptoms of Depression in College Students: A Moderate Mediation Model
ZHU Yingying, MA Xiaoqing, TANG Zhuoyi, YANG Minqi
2021, 19(5):  657-664,694. 
Abstract ( 30 )   HTML ( 6 )   PDF (1267KB) ( 38 )   References | Related Articles | Metrics
The aim of the present study was to explore the effect of chronotype on depressive symptoms in college students, and to examine the mediating role of sleep quality and the moderating effect of gender. A sample of 733 college students were investigated in this study with Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire, Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Results were as follows: 1) Chronotype had a significant negative prediction on sleep quality and depressive symptoms. 2) Sleep quality partially mediated the relationship between chronotype and depression among college students. 3) The association between chronotype and depression was moderated by gender. Chronotype was a much stronger predictor of sleep quality for male students as compared with females.
The Development of Sense of Gain Questionnaire Among Urban Community Residents
WANG Yanli, CHEN Hong
2021, 19(5):  665-670. 
Abstract ( 15 )   HTML ( 1 )   PDF (572KB) ( 10 )   References | Related Articles | Metrics
Based on literature analysis and in-depth interviews, we developed the initial scale of urban community residents’ sense of gain. Then, we obtained the formal scale through item analysis, exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis. The formal scale includes two subscales: sense of cognitive gain and sense of emotional experience gain. The former is composed of horizontal and longitudinal sense of cognitive gains, and the latter is composed of horizontal and longitudinal sense of emotional experience gain. The results show that the final scale has high internal consistency, test-retest reliability, good structural validity and criterion validity, and can be used as a measurement tool for future related research.
Socioeconomic Status and Mental Health in Children and Adolescents: A Meta-Analysis
JIA Xiaoshan, ZHU Haidong
2021, 19(5):  671-678. 
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A meta-analysis was conducted to study the relationship between socioeconomic status and mental health in Chinese children and adolescents. Through literature retrieval, 62 articles and 126 independent effect sizes were selected together with 111,117 participants, which met the inclusion criteria of meta-analysis. The results showed that socioeconomic status was positively correlated with positive indicators of mental health, and negatively correlated with negative indicators of mental health. In addition, the relationship between socioeconomic status and mental health was moderated by different levels of socioeconomic status, types of positive indicators of mental health and publication year, but not by the types of negative indicators of mental health, participants and region. These results indicate that socioeconomic status is closely related to mental health in children and adolescents, and different levels of socioeconomic status, types of positive indicators of mental health and publication year are important moderating variables.
The Relationship of Work-Family Conflict and Preschool Teachers’ Turnover Intentions: The Sequential Mediating Roles of Professional Identity and Job Burnout
HUANG Mingming, CHEN Liping, GUO Liping, ZHAO Shouying
2021, 19(5):  679-686. 
Abstract ( 15 )   HTML ( 3 )   PDF (756KB) ( 21 )   References | Related Articles | Metrics
In order to explore the relationship between work-family conflict and preschool teachers’ turnover intention, 992 preschool teachers were recruited to complete the Work-Family Conflict Scale, Professional Identity Scale, Job Burnout Scale and Turnover Intention Scale. The results showed that: 1) Work-family conflict, professional identity, job burnout and preschool teachers’ turnover intention were significantly related with each other. 2) Work-family conflict had a positive effect on preschool teachers’ turnover intention. 3) Work-family conflict had a positive effect on preschool teachers’ turnover intention through the meditating role of professional identity and job burnout. Professional identity and job burnout play a sequential mediating role in the relationship between work-family conflict and preschool teachers’ turnover intention.
Will Incidental Happiness Reduce the Agent’s Moral Norms Sensitivity?
LIU Chuanjun, XIE Zhongju, WANG Xingyuan
2021, 19(5):  687-694. 
Abstract ( 24 )   HTML ( 0 )   PDF (867KB) ( 6 )   References | Related Articles | Metrics
Previous study demonstrated that the CNI model approach presupposed an agent considers consequences-norms-generalized inaction/action preferences sequentially, which is untenable. We reanalyzed the raw data of the study, in which incidental happiness reduces the agent’s moral norms sensitivity, and then ran a conceptual replication study of the effect. The results demonstrated that the target effect was statistically insignificant. It supports our speculation that the CNI model overestimates the differences between groups on moral sensitivity, thus turning out false positive effects. This effect should be carefully checked in the future, and the limitations of the CNI model should be brought to the forefront.
No Place Better than Hometown: The Influence of Hometown Label on Emotional Evaluation and Value Evaluation for Landscape Images
ZHANG Xiaoyu, ZHU Haiyan, CHEN Fengjiao, SU Xinyue
2021, 19(5):  695-700. 
Abstract ( 43 )   HTML ( 5 )   PDF (867KB) ( 23 )   References | Related Articles | Metrics
To explore the influence of hometown labels on emotional and value evaluation of landscape pictures, participants were required to evaluate their preferences for the same landscape painting pictures respectively with hometown and non-hometown labels in experiment 1. In experiment 2, participants were required to assess values of the same landscape oil painting pictures respectively with hometown and non-hometown labels. The results showed that: 1) compared with landscape painting pictures with non-hometown labels, participants had stronger preferences for those with hometown labels; 2) compared with landscape oil painting pictures with non-hometown labels, participants placed a higher value on those with hometown labels. The results indicate people are more likely to prefer and overvalue the items with their hometown labels.
STEAM Training Can Improve Pupils’ Attentional Inhibition and Attentional Concentration Ability
SU Mingyu, WANG Guangming
2021, 19(5):  701-705. 
Abstract ( 12 )   HTML ( 1 )   PDF (529KB) ( 12 )   References | Related Articles | Metrics
STEAM training is an important method to cultivate students’ scientific literacy and skills in primary and secondary schools. During the process, students’ cognitive processes such as attention processing are trained. In this study, Stroop task and cancellation test were used to investigate the effect of STEAM on improving students’ attentional inhibition and concentration ability, and to examine whether STEAM training can effectively improve students’ attention ability. The results showed that: 1) There was no difference in the activation of goal-related information among students whether they participated in STEAM scientific training or not. 2) In terms of inhibition of goal-independent information, students who participated in STEAM training scored significantly higher than those who did not participate in STEAM training. 3) The attention concentration ability of the students who participated in STEAM training was significantly improved in the cancellation test. The whole study shows that STEAM scientific training significantly improves students’ attentional inhibition ability and attentional concentration ability in primary schools.
The Association and Mechanism Between Organizational Integration and Depressive Symptoms Among Students of the University of the Third Age
CHEN Lanshuang, SONG Huimin, DONG Jing, ZHAO Huan, ZHANG Zhen
2021, 19(5):  706-713. 
Abstract ( 16 )   HTML ( 2 )   PDF (707KB) ( 14 )   References | Related Articles | Metrics
This study aimed to explore the association between organizational integration and depressive symptoms, the mediating roles of positive affect and negative affect, and the moderating role of intimate relation among students of the University of the Third Age. The sample consisted of 2,632 students aged ≥55 years from the University of the Third Age. The results revealed that organizational integration was negatively associated with depressive symptoms. Both positive affect and negative affect mediated the association between organizational integration and depressive symptoms. Moreover, the associations of organizational integration- negative affect and organizational integration- depressive symptoms were positively moderated by intimate relation. This suggests, relative to students with better intimate relation, organizational integration more significantly reduces depressive symptoms and negative affect of students with worse intimate relation.
The Effect of Contextual Cues and Word Spaces on Novel Word Learning in Foreign Students: Evidence from Eye Movements
LUO Yujiao, WANG Yongsheng, HE Liyuan, LI Xin
2021, 19(5):  714-720. 
Abstract ( 35 )   HTML ( 2 )   PDF (535KB) ( 15 )   References | Related Articles | Metrics
In order to explore how word segmentation and context cues affect new word learning for foreign students, the current study manipulated the strength of contextual clues and the appearance of new word boundary. Twenty foreign undergraduates participanted in the present experiment, whose eye movements were record when reading sentences including target words (which were new words for participants). Results showed that the first fixation duration on target words with spaces was significantly shorter than that without spaces. When there were strong contextual cues for the target words, participants spent longer gaze duration on words with space than without space. Moreover, the total fixation duration on target words reduced with the increasing learning times, and such reduction was more distinct when there were strong contextual clues compared with weak contextual clues. The results suggest that both word segmentation and contextual cues facilitate incidental word learning for foreign students, and foreign students make better use of contextual cues with the help of word spaces.