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    20 November 2014, Volume 12 Issue 6 Previous Issue    Next Issue

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    Discussion on the Zhixian Zhu School: An Innovation of Child Psychology Theory and Experiment
    Bai Xuejun, Lin Chongde
    2014, 12(6):  721-726. 
    Abstract ( 593 )   PDF (688KB) ( 963 )   References | Related Articles | Metrics
    School is a group of scientist whose thought, work, or style demonstrating a common origin or influence or unifying belief. In psychological history of China, Professor Zhixian Zhu have scored great achievements in developmental psychology and formed the Zhixian Zhu School. The main contribution of this school is: having constructed a integrated theoretical system; published professional textbook of developmental psychology in China and established the foundation for cultivating talents of developmental psychology; carried out research about psychological characteristic of Chinese children and adolescents other than citing European′s or American′s viewpoint; founded the Journal of Psychological Development and Education as well as created a academic platform; edited The Psychological Dictionary and generalized thoroughly the Chinese psychological achievement; cultivated leading talents in developmental psychology of China.
    Carry Forward the Idea of Integrating Theories with Operations, Walk the Path of Utilizing Psychology to Instruct Practice
    Chen Yinghe
    2014, 12(6):  727-729. 
    Abstract ( 415 )   PDF (363KB) ( 436 )   References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Mr Zhu Zhixian is a distinguished psychologist and educationalist in China. First, this paper gave a brief review of Mr Zhu′s great contribution to Chinese psychology field. Secondly, the great efforts and important researches achieved from Institute of developmental psychology leading by professor Lin Chongde in Beijing Normal University, which guiding by Mr Zhu′s theories and aiming at ″Carry forward the combination of theory and practice, Practice the localilzation of psychological research″. Finally, the paper pointed out the achievements and developmental direction of the construction of contemporary psychology researchers in China, which is guided by Mr Zhu′s thoughts of talent cultivation. At the time of Mr Zhu′s 105thanniversary, this paper is for remembering the extraordinary work of Mr Zhu Zhixian.
    Psychological Health Diathesis Assessment System: Establishing National Norms of Health Belief Scale for Chinese Adults
    Hao Zhihong, Liang Baoyong
    2014, 12(6):  730-734. 
    Abstract ( 502 )   PDF (590KB) ( 538 )   References | Related Articles | Metrics
    The present study aimed at establishing national norms for Health Belief Scale for adults. A part of Chinese Adults Mental Health Diathesis Scale, Health Belief Scale, was to used in 6216 Chinese adults from 28 provinces. Health Belief Scale has been proved reliable and valid in this national sample. We examined the differences of health belief among participants with different demographics, and the results showed that, 1)female scored higher on rationality dimensions than male; 2)youth group had higher health belief than wrinkly and elderly group; 3)Urban population got higher scores on the health belief than rural population; 4)As education background increased, people′s health belief also significantly increased; 5)population with better health status got higher scores on the health belief than those with ordinary and bad status. Based on the results of study, we established the national norms for health belief scale.
    Psychological Health Diathesis Assessment System: A Nationwide Survey of Resilient Trait Scale for Chinese Adults
    Cheng Cheng, Huang Jun, Liang Baoyong
    2014, 12(6):  735-742. 
    Abstract ( 809 )   PDF (728KB) ( 786 )   References | Related Articles | Metrics
    The purpose of this study was to establish national norms for Resilient Trait Scale for Chinese Adults. Based on the results of the sixth nationwide census, a nationwide survey was taken and 6433 Chinese adults sample were attained. The result showed that: 1)The male scored higher on internal locus of control and problem focused coping style than did the female; the female scored higher on predisposition of accepting and utilizing social supports and acceptance than did the male. 2)As age grows, the score of resilience increased, however this phenomenon is not obvious after middle age. 3)The score of resilience, problem focused coping style, predisposition of accepting and utilizing social supports, optimism, acceptance increased when individual got higher levels of education. 4)The interaction effects of the level of education and the age period were significant on resilience Overall average score and internal locus of control dimensions average score.
    Chinese Adult Mental Health Diathesis: A Study of Hardiness Scale
    Yu Lirong, Lu Guohua, Liang Baoyong
    2014, 12(6):  743-747. 
    Abstract ( 473 )   PDF (511KB) ( 1123 )   References | Related Articles | Metrics
    A part of Chinese Adults Mental Health Diathesis scale, namely Hardiness Scale, was used to investigate 6433 Chinese adults from 28 provinces. The results showed that: 1)The total score and each dimension showed normal distribution; 2)The male scored higher on total score, perseverance, control and challenge than did the female; 3)Comparing to the elderly group, youth group had lower perseverance, control, commitment, while had higher challenge; 4)Urban population had better commitment than rural population; 5)Along with the education level enhanced, people′s control score, commitment score and challenge score were significantly increased.
    Psychological Health Diathesis Assessment System: Establishing National Norms of Social Desirability for Chinese Adults
    Xu Sheng, Li Qiang, Li Ling, Yin Yixuan, Liang Dong
    2014, 12(6):  748-755. 
    Abstract ( 437 )   PDF (794KB) ( 513 )   Related Articles | Metrics
    The present study aimed at investigating current condition of social desirability among Chinese adults, as well as establishing national norms for the formerly developed Multidimensional Social Desirability Scale for Chinese Adults(MSD-CA). Based on the results of the sixth nationwide census, we attained a valid sample of 6350 adults using the method of stratified sampling. The results showed that the female scored significantly higher than the male on the total scale, and the dimension of self-deception denial, agency management, and communion management. The youth group had a lower level than the middle-aged and elderly group on the total score and all dimensions. Urban population scored higher than the rural population on the total scale and each dimension. Participants with an educational background of junior high school scored lower on the total scale and the dimension of communion management than those with a background of senior high school and junior college and above. Low income population had a higher level of agency management than middle and high income population, while the high income population had a lower level of communion management than the low and middle population. Based on the results of this investigation, we further established the national norms for MSD-CA.
    The Preparation Effect of Insight: From Evidence of ERP
    Xing Qiang, Zhang Zhonglu
    2014, 12(6):  756-762. 
    Abstract ( 442 )   PDF (744KB) ( 632 )   References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Preparation effect could be regarded as what individual did or knowledge obtained during the preparation period having influence on insight problem solving. Whether preparation time has a positive or negative influence or even both on insight problem solving has not reached a uniform conclusion. Time course of insight problem solving has not been validly studied. Thus, this research, based on the catalyze paradigm, compared the event related potentials variations in logogriph understanding between two conditions: with or without preparation. The result showed that between 200ms and 900ms, preparation effect elicited a positive ERP deflection(P200-900), activating most of the scalp regions; preparation effect elicited a positive ERP deflection(P900-1400)in frontal and central scalp regions and a negative ERP deflection(N900-1400)in occipital scalp regions, respectively. It is indicated that: 1)processing in preparation has effect on understanding of the logogriphs. 2)The preparation effect has both facilitation and inhibition on the logogriph understanding. 3)P200-900 may reflect inhibition from the prior knowledge to insight problem solving, P900-1400 as well as N900-1400 indicates inhibition and facilitation from the prior knowledge being together.
    An Aging Study on the Perceptual Span in Reading Chinese:Evidence from Eye Movements
    Wang Lihong, Bai Xuejun, Yan Guoli
    2014, 12(6):  763-768. 
    Abstract ( 413 )   PDF (570KB) ( 656 )   References | Related Articles | Metrics
    The perceptual span is one of the basic topics in reading research, which is the area of effective vision from which useful information can be obtained during a fixation in reading.The present experiment was conducted to explore the size of the perceptual span in older adults during the sentence reading by using the eye movement contingent display change technique. Sixteen older adults and sixteen young adults with normal or corrected-to-normal vision participated in this research. The results were as followings:1)The perceptual span of older adults in reading Chinese is also asymmetric. 2)The perceptual span of older adults in reading Chinese is extended from fixated character to two characters or three characters to its right on condition that the presentation unit is character. 3)Older adults has smaller perceptual span in Chinese reading than younger adults.
    The Influence of Semantic Transparency and Formation Frequency on Polymorphemic Verbs
    Wang Juan, Zhang Jijia, Xu Jinyu
    2014, 12(6):  769-774. 
    Abstract ( 541 )   PDF (594KB) ( 896 )   Related Articles | Metrics
    Repetition primed paradigm was adopted to investigate the influence of semantic transparency and formation frequency on polymorphemic verbs in this study. The results showed that: 1)semantic transparency affects polymorphemic verbs′ recognition,high semantic transparency verbs′ recognition were faster than that of low semantic transparency. 2)Formation frequency influence verbs′ processing,verbs′ transparency play an important role in polymorphemic verbs′ processing. The formation frequency influenced the processing of low semantic transparency verbs. The study supported the model of multiple-double representation system selective processing model.
    Effect of Word Segmentation on Japanese-Chinese and Chinese-Japanese Bilinguals′ Japanese Reading:Evidence from Eye Movements
    Guo Zhiying, Bai Xuejun, Gu Li, Wang Yongsheng, Wang Lihong
    2014, 12(6):  775-781. 
    Abstract ( 638 )   PDF (670KB) ( 644 )   References | Related Articles | Metrics
    To study the effect of word segmentation on Japanese-Chinese bilinguals and Chinese-Japanese bilinguals′ Japanese reading, 24 Japanese-Chinese bilinguals and 24 Chinese-Japanese bilinguals participated in the research, with their eye movements recorded using an SR research EyeLink 2000 eyetracker(sampling rate=1000 Hz). Two experiments were carried out. In experiment 1, three spacing conditions were included: normal unspaced condition; word spaced condition(text with spaces between words); and nonword spaced condition(text with spaces between characters that yielded nonwords). In experiment 2, highlighting was used to create analogous conditions: normal Chinese text, text with highlighting used to mark words, and text with highlighting that yielded nonwords. The results of the present study suggest that spacing is more useful in Japanese reading than highlighting cues for Chinese-Japanese bilinguals. The spaced-word might facilitate Japanese reading for Chinese-Japanese bilinguals.
    The Development Theory of Mind in Conflict Deontic Contexts among Middle School Students
    Chen Youqing, Geng Haiyan
    2014, 12(6):  782-789. 
    Abstract ( 381 )   PDF (784KB) ( 414 )   Related Articles | Metrics
    In this research we created two Deontic Contexts, i.e., the Convention and Personal. The Deontic Rules of conflict within each domain and between domains were contained in both contexts. We investigated 176 Middle School Students′ judgments of actor′s and constitutor′s opinions, experiences and behavioral tendency in Deontic Context stories in order to analyze their development of Theory of Mind. The following results were observed. 1)Middle school students thought that actors(i.e. middle school students)were more inclined to have same understandings of two rules in the convention domain, accept, rules prescribed by other inventors in the person domain. 2)In comparison with the Deontic Rule of conflict within domains, the middle school students thought teachers had more negative views on the students who had violated the Deontic Rule of conflict between domains. 3)There was no difference in age or gender in the students′ Theory of Mind in Conflict Deontic Contexts. The conclusion is that Middle School Students′ judgments of Middle School Students and adult′s opinions, experiences and behavioral tendency could be changed with different Deontic Contexts domain and Deontic Rules of conflict.
    The Characters of Peer Relationship for Primary Students with Different Social Behavior Dispositions
    Wang Wen, Gai Xiaosong
    2014, 12(6):  790-794. 
    Abstract ( 460 )   PDF (440KB) ( 582 )   Related Articles | Metrics
    This research used Class Play and peer nomination method to make an investigation on the relationship between the social behavior of primary students and the degree of acceptance by their companions through the person-oriented perspective. CFA was used to get those major findings: 1)Children with positive social behaviors were easy to be popular, not easy to be rejected by the peers at all grades. When they had both positive social and withdrawal behaviors, they were easy to be popular in the early grade. 2)Children with aggressive behaviors were easy to get the rejected or controversial peer relationships. Children with aggressive and withdrawal behaviors were easy to be rejected by peers in the primary grades. Their peer relationship became controversial when they entered high-grade in primary school. 3)Children with non-significant social behavior dispositions were not easy to be popular in the lower grades, but they were easy to get the general peer relationship, not easy to be controversial by the peers during the whole primary school period.
    The Relationship Study Among Interpersonal Trust, Sense of Alienation, Public Responsibility Consciousness of Senior High Students
    Hu Wei, Chen Shisheng, Lu Yong
    2014, 12(6):  795-799. 
    Abstract ( 410 )   PDF (549KB) ( 590 )   Related Articles | Metrics
    The present study explored The relationship among interpersonal trust, sense of alienation, public responsibility consciousness of senior high students via ″the questionnaire of interpersonal trust of high school students″, ″the questionnaire of sense of alienation of teenage students″, ″the questionnaire of public responsibility consciousness″ as tools. 316 subjects selected randomly participated the study. The result showed that among the three dimensions, every two of them had a significant correlation. The sense of alienation mediates the relationship between character trust, ability trust, behavior consistency and public responsibility consciousness partially. The finding that the senior high students with lower character trust, lower ability trust, lower behavior consistency performed lower public responsibility consciousness could be explained by the effect via the higher sense of alienation.
    A Study on the Effect of Personal Relationships on the Ways of Moral Thinking of Adolescence
    Feng Zhouqi, Bai Xuejun, Chen Yezi
    2014, 12(6):  800-805. 
    Abstract ( 363 )   PDF (636KB) ( 578 )   Related Articles | Metrics
    A between-subjects experiment of 2(victims on the scheduled route : relatives, strangers)×2(victim on the unscheduled route: relative, stranger)×4(Grades: 5, 8, 11, sophomore)with 480 students was conducted with trolley dilemma to investigate the effect of personal relationships on the ways of moral thinking of adolescence in different ages. The results show that: 1)A significant interaction effect between the two types of personal relationships of victims exists. When the victims on the scheduled route were strangers, participants made their moral decisions with rules-based thinking under the condition that the victim on the unscheduled route was their relative, but with outcome-based thinking as the victim became a stranger. Similarly, when the victim on the unscheduled route was their relative, participants made their moral decisions with outcome-based thinking under the condition that the victims on the scheduled route were their relatives, but with rules-based thinking as the victims become strangers. 2)There is a significant interaction effect between Grades and personal relationships of the victims on the scheduled route. Our study suggests that personal relationships in moral situation influence individuals′ moral thinking, and have an increasing effect on the ways of adolescences′ moral thinking, the transition period of the two types of moral thinking appears between Grade 8 and Grade 11. Our study supports the relationship regulations theory.
    College Students′ Entrepreneurial Intention and Personality: The Path Model of Mediating Effect of Entrepreneurial Self-efficacy Effect
    Sun Yang, Zhang Xiangkui
    2014, 12(6):  806-812. 
    Abstract ( 392 )   PDF (699KB) ( 665 )   Related Articles | Metrics
    To explore the relation between entrepreneurial intention and personality,particularly investigating the mediating effects of entrepreneurial self-efficacy,three scales for big five personality,entrepreneurial intention and entrepreneurial self-efficacy were performed and 2161 college students took part in the investigation. We get the following findings: 1)Extraversion and agreeableness on entrepreneurial intention has significant predict effect, neuroticism and conscientiousness positively correlate with entrepreneurial implementation intention. 2)The entrepreneurial self-efficacy positively correlate with entrepreneurial intention, extraversion, agreeableness and conscientiousness on entrepreneurial self-efficacy has significant predict effect. 3)The result of SEM analysis indicates that the entrepreneurial self-efficacy in the partial intermediary role between extroversion and entrepreneurial intention, agreeableness and entrepreneurial intention, conscientiousness and entrepreneurial implementation intention; the entrepreneurial self-efficacy mediates the relation between conscientiousness and entrepreneurial goal intention.
    The Mediating Effect of Resilience between Mental Stress and Mental Health on College Students
    Huang Jie, Zhang Huiyong, Shang Shijie
    2014, 12(6):  813-818. 
    Abstract ( 438 )   PDF (624KB) ( 700 )   Related Articles | Metrics
    This study used Chinese Adult Resilience Scale developed by Liang Bao yong & Cheng Cheng, Chinese College Student Psychological Stress Scale by Liang Baoyong & Hao Zhihong, Chinese College Student Mental Health Scale by Deng Richang, Deng Lifang & Zhang Zhonghua etc. These scales were used to test 4 colleges and 620 college students , focusing on the specific relationship among resilience and mental stress and mental health on college students. The results suggested that resilience can buffer the negative effects of psychological stress on the mental health of college students, among college students mental stress and mental health has partially mediating effect. The resilience to withstand the mental stress, maintain mental health of college students play a very important role, so heightening resilience should be an important goal for college student mental health education.
    Building School, Family and Social Integration of mental health education mode
    Yin Guoen, Cao Rui, Xu Li
    2014, 12(6):  819-823. 
    Abstract ( 355 )   PDF (645KB) ( 536 )   Related Articles | Metrics
    The factors that affect primary and middle school students′ mental health including school, family and the social various aspects, but the survey found that the current mental health education in our country presents the tendency of simplification, mental health education are the main implementers school, families and society in the position and role of the students′ psychological health education are not ingredients, this kind of condition is bound to affect the effect of psychological health education in our country. This paper also explains the system set up schools, families, the necessity of the social integration of mental health education model, ways and methods, and puts forward corresponding countermeasures based on the actual suggestion.
    Cumulative Contextual Risk and Suicidal Ideation among Working Women: A Mediated Moderation Model
    Liu Wang, Tian Lili, Tan Jihong
    2014, 12(6):  824-830. 
    Abstract ( 325 )   PDF (801KB) ( 573 )   Related Articles | Metrics
    This study proposed and tested a mediated moderation model. The basic situation questionnaire, Stressful Life Events Rating Scale, Social Support Rating Scale, Work Family Conflict Scale, Hardiness Scale, Psychache Scale, and Beck Suicidal Ideation-Chinese Version were administered to 1092 working women from Guangdong, Henan, Tianjin, Beijing and other places, to investigate the moderating effect of hardiness on the relationship between cumulative contextual risk and suicidal ideation among working women, as well as the mediating effect of psychache on the moderation model. Results were as follows:1)Cumulative contextual risk positively predicted the suicidal ideation among working women. 2)Hardiness played a moderating role between cumulative risk and suicidal ideation among working women. 3)Psychache was the mediated variable in the moderating model of hardiness between cumulative risk and working women′ suicidal ideation. That is, the moderating effect of hardiness worked through moderating the effect of psychache on suicidal ideation.
    Intervention on Employees′ Subjective Well-Being in Chinese Enterprises
    Zhang Wei, Zhu Ze, Chen Mengmeng, Gong Xianmin, Zhang Xichao
    2014, 12(6):  831-839. 
    Abstract ( 416 )   PDF (853KB) ( 594 )   Related Articles | Metrics
    By adopting a randomized control trial design, the present study investigated if interventions on gratitude, goodness-behavior and goal-pursuit benefit employees′ subjective well-being in Chinese workplaces. A total of 140 employees from 3 Chinese enterprises were recruited, and then assigned into 3 intervention groups, 1 placebo-contrast group and 1 control group. The intervention program lasted for 1 week. Subjective well-being was measured before, immediately after, and 2 weeks after the intervention. The results indicated that keeping gratitude journals improved employees′ life satisfaction; acting goodness benefited employees′ life satisfaction and positive emotions, and decrease their negative emotions; intervention on pursuing goals increased employee′s life satisfaction, and decreased negative emotions.
    The Effects of Spatial Distance and Product Attributes on Consumer Selection Preference
    Wang Yang, Mu Bingbing, Wan Xiaoang
    2014, 12(6):  840-846. 
    Abstract ( 404 )   PDF (651KB) ( 525 )   Related Articles | Metrics
    We report a study designed to examine how spatial distance interacts with product attributes to influence consumer selection preference. In the preliminary experiment, we asked Chinese participants to rate the attractiveness and importance of certain attributes that potato chips might have. Thus, we obtained descriptions of two brands of potato chips which had comparable overall attractiveness. One brand had more attractive alignable attributes, whereas the other brand had more attractive nonalignable attributes. In Experiment 1, we examined how the egocentric spatial distance and product attributes interact to influence consumer preference. The results revealed that the egocentric spatial distance between the participants and each brand of potato chips did not influence their selection preference. In Experiment 2, we examined how the allocentric spatial distance and product attributes interact to influence consumer preference. The results revealed that consumers had a higher preference on the brand which had more attractive nonalignable attributes, when the spatial distance between the two brands of potato chips increased. Taken together, these results demonstrated that emphasizing the allocentric distance between two products might highlight the difference between them, and therefore increase consumer′s usage of nonalignable attributes in their selection process.
    The Effects of Gender and Sense of Control on Trusting Behavior for Chinese
    Li You, Jiang Xinwen, Wang Feixue
    2014, 12(6):  847-850. 
    Abstract ( 451 )   PDF (418KB) ( 624 )   Related Articles | Metrics
    In order to testify the hypothesis that gender differences in trust were associated with sense of control, the present study investigated the interaction between gender and sense of control on trusting behavior. The experiment adopted the classic Faith Game paradigm and manipulated participants′ sense of control by designing two experimental conditions which differed in the orders of decision making. Results supported the prediction that there was a significant interaction between gender and sense of control on participants′ trusting behavior. In the low-sense-of-control condition, male participants were more trusting of unknown partners than female participants, which replicated the findings of previous studies. Such gender difference disappeared when sense of control was increased in the high-sense-of-control condition, indicating that sense of control mediated gender difference in trusting behavior.
    The Impact of Training and Incentive Practices on Cooperation Intention of Knowledge Workers: The Mediating Roles of Organizational Loyalty
    Tian Lifa, Zhang Guanglei, Liang Chen
    2014, 12(6):  851-856. 
    Abstract ( 287 )   PDF (770KB) ( 505 )   Related Articles | Metrics
    In order to clarify the effecting mechanism of training and incentive practices on organizational loyalty and cooperation intention of knowledge workers, a questionnaire survey was carried out to collect data from 364 knowledge workers of 13 firms in Tianjin. The results of structure equation models showed that: affective loyalty plays partial and complete mediating roles respectively in the two relationships of training practices and incentive practices on cooperation intention; continuance loyalty′ mediating roles was not significant in both relationships.
    Effect of ″Self-deception″ Intervention for Mania
    Tang Qiping
    2014, 12(6):  857-860. 
    Abstract ( 459 )   PDF (506KB) ( 441 )   Related Articles | Metrics
    In the current research, we made ″self-deception″ as an interventional tool, combined with belief, love and traditional culture, and treated a Mania patient for 6 years. The results showed that BRMS was decreased significantly, and the behavioral problems was reduced, which suggest that the ″self-deception″ intervention has positive effect during the psychotherapy for the Manias.